Chapter 22 Special Topics
Section 6, Rural Victims
Eighty percent of the United States is geographically designated as rural-remote.
This section will examine the unique challenges to providing basic victim services
in rural-remote regions and promising practices that seek to improve victims'
rights and services.
Upon completion of this section, students will understand the following concepts:
- The problems and issues relevant to providing basic services to victims in
rural-remote regions of the United States.
- Concerns of specific victim populations in rural-remote regions, including
victims in Indian Country, victims of domestic violence, and campus crime victims,
and potential solutions.
- Promising practices developed to meet the needs of victims in rural-remote
- Approximately one-third of all Americans (31.2%) live in rural areas (U.S.
Census Bureau 1997).
- In the fourteen years from 1983 to 1997, violent crime in rural counties
increased 53% (FBI 1998a).
- During the first six months of 1998, preliminary statistics showed an 8%
increase in murder offenses in towns with populations 10,000 to 24,999, and
a 3% increase in rural counties (FBI 13 December 1998).
- In 1997, violent crimes dropped 6.2% in cities with populations of over one
million, while rural counties experienced a 3.1% increase:
- Robberies increased by 10.7% in rural counties.
- Forcible rape increased by 9.7% in cities with populations under 10,000
and by 7.4% in rural counties.
- Motor vehicle theft increased by 4.6% in rural counties (FBI 1998b).
- The rates of violent crime and personal theft per 1,000 persons age twelve
and older in rural jurisdictions was 27.6 overall and 1.5 for rape/sexual assault,
2.6 for robbery, 4.9 for aggravated assault, 18.7 for simple assault, and 0.5
for personal theft (BJS 1999).
- The first wave of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth interviewed
a nationally representative sample of 9,000 youth who were between the ages
of twelve and sixteen at year-end 1996. The survey asked youth to report whether
they had ever engaged in a variety of deviant and delinquent behaviors. Youth
in rural jurisdictions reported the following:
- 45% had consumed alcohol.
- 11% had carried a handgun.
- 29% had purposely destroyed property.
- 17% had committed assault.
- 6% had been arrested (Snyder and Sickmund 1999).
Although rural crime rates have traditionally been lower than urban crime
rates, patterns of rural crime now indicate both the exporting of urban problems
to rural areas and problems that are unique to rural areas (Edmunds and Wallace
1995). Victims of federal crime who reside in rural areas face serious problems.
Many victims must travel long distances to a federal courthouse. Often, these
victims face similar attitudual problems that other victims face--lack of understanding
of the impact of distance and lack of support services. In addition, rural
federal crime victims often can be skeptical about seeking assistance from
the U.S. Attorney, feeling the federal official is really not "one of
Economic problems facing rural areas increasingly affect the nature and extent
of crime. The impact on the resources available to communities to respond
to crime and to assist victims is enormous. Often the only sentencing option
for judges to select is incarceration because few community sentencing programs
exist in rural areas.
In addition, aspects of the rural culture may affect crime victims' willingness
to report violence and to participate in the criminal justice system. One
study found that shoplifting and employee theft were rarely reported to the
police. Rather, the cases were handled informally. One criminal justice official
said, "I simply can't get people to tell me things. I hear about them
two or three weeks later, and when I ask them why they didn't come to see
me about it, they say, `Oh, I took care of it myself.' We simply can't get
people to take advantage of the services of this office."
Unique Problems Faced by Rural-Remote Victims
In addition to the above mentioned problems facing rural-remote communities
are unique issues faced by victims in remote tribal communities, victims of
domestic violence living in rural areas, and victims on rural campuses.
Violence on tribal lands is one of the most pressing issues in modern society.
A BJS report on crime and victimization among American Indians has found that
the rate of violent victimization estimated from responses by American Indians
is well above that of other U.S. racial or ethnic subgroups and is more than
twice as high as the national average (Greenfeld and Smith 1999).
Feelings of alienation are common among members of various Indian Nations.
Problems faced by victims of family violence and gang violence on tribal lands
are further complicated by the geographical and jurisdictional issues inherent
in tribal justice processes (for more information, see the "Tribal Justice"
section of this Text). Confusing and often counterproductive jurisdictional
boundaries exist among state, federal, and tribal laws, and the result can
be chaos for the victim needing services.
For many rural family violence victims, simply traveling to the local police
station to make a report takes on special significance because of the distance,
lack of transportation, and time involved in making such a trip. Transportation
issues are especially critical for elderly victims and children going to therapy
sessions. Travel to criminal justice agencies is exacerbated for tribal crime
victims who participate in the federal justice system. Many tribal crime victims
have to travel hundreds of miles to participate in the criminal justice process.
One crime victim from the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming had to travel
over 500 miles to present a victim impact statement at the federal courthouse--and
was told of the sentencing hearing the day before.
VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
While far less research has been conducted about rural family violence than
family violence in urban areas, in the publication Rural Crime and Rural
Policing (Weisheit et al. 1994), the National Institute of Justice indicates
the following characteristics and dimensions of rural versus urban family
- Recent studies indicate that children in rural communities are as likely,
and possibly more likely, to be abused or neglected than children in cities.
- Crimes such as homicide, rape, and assault are more likely to occur among
acquaintances in rural areas than in urban areas.
- While limited surveys of the level of rural domestic violence have been conducted,
an Ohio study found that the least populated jurisdictions had the highest rates
for domestic violence disputes.
- Although rural families face the same drug, alcohol, poverty, and stress
problems as do families who live in metropolitan areas, rural communities typically
have fewer resources.
Many rural counties have very low populations. Currently, one out of three
rural counties (850) has fewer than 10,000 residents. This presents a challenge
to establishing even basic services for crime victims, such as counseling
for child abuse victims and shelters for battered women. Many rural domestic
violence victims face the additional problem of not only having to leave their
home to find safety but their community as well. Often, the nearest shelter
may be several communities and many miles away. Not only are these victims
forced to leave whatever support network is available, but also their children
must be taken out of school in order to reach safety.
The effects of geography also pose serious problems for rural family violence
victims. Distance affects the response time and the speed with which law enforcement
and emergency services respond to victims' calls for assistance. While urban
areas judge emergency response time in minutes, access to medical treatment
in rural areas generally takes longer. In addition, rural law enforcement
waits longer for backup assistance, thus forcing difficult decisions by on-site
personnel between responding to dangerous situations alone or delaying critical
Overall, the issues of rural family violence and rural justice have not received
national attention in the development of policies and protocol for law enforcement
or other areas of the criminal justice system. In light of the relative scarcity
of resources in rural-remote areas, the need for collaboration within the
criminal justice system and neighboring communities is critical. It is essential
that victim assistance programs target the identification of other service
organizations and criminal justice agencies that are available for and/or
interested in coordinating and collaborative efforts. The unique needs of
rural-remote victims must be viewed with an eye toward unique solutions that
maximize current community and neighboring area resources.
ISSUES SPECIFIC TO RURAL-REMOTE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
In 1998, the National Criminal Justice Association, with support from the
Office for Victims of Crime, sponsored a project to examine rights and services
for people victimized on or around institutions of higher education. A multidisciplinary
focus group discussed relevant issues, including the challenges of providing
victim assistance, supportive services, and protective measures to victims
on campuses in rural-remote regions of the United States, and recommended
The basic demographics of rural-remote campuses contribute to limited victim
services, as well as less victim accessing of available services. Campuses
tend to be smaller, and may not be as "connected to the community"
as campuses in urban or suburban settings. Often, confidentiality concerns
are escalated because "everyone knows everyone," and "rumor
mills are rampant." Victims may be more likely to know their offenders,
which can pose both confidentiality and protection concerns. Services for
offenders (such as treatment, rehabilitation and supervision) are limited
as well. In addition, the homogenous demographics of some rural-remote campuses
can pose challenges to providing quality, supportive services to victims who
do not match the general characteristics of the student population. Students
of color may perceive greater jeopardy, both in their chances of being victimized,
and in reporting crimes and receiving supportive services.
While 80 percent of the United States is rural-remote, there is less infrastructure
available to support public safety and victim assistance initiatives in such
jurisdictions. Traditionally, much funding for such services has been population-based
(although this factor is changing).
In some rural jurisdictions, experimentation with alcohol and other drugs
begins at earlier ages because "there is nothing to do." Guns may
be more prevalent. There may be a "false sense of security" among
people on campus because crime rates in rural-remote areas have historically
tended to be lower than in urban or suburban jurisdictions (although this,
too, is changing with the arrival of traditionally urban gang-and drug-related
activities in remote-rural communities).
Victim-related issues at religious institutions of higher education can be
complex. There are concerns that victims may be partially or fully blamed
for their victimization, and that victims who are unable or unwilling to "forgive"
the perpetrator may be alienated or ex-communicated.
Law enforcement services are much more limited in remote-rural jurisdictions:
- There are fewer officers who are trained in investigations, laws and services
relevant to crime victims. This may be a direct result of beliefs that "crime
happens less often" in rural-remote regions, resulting in less focus on
victim-sensitive training and victim assistance.
- There is a lack of vertical units that specialize in specific crimes and
victimization, i.e. domestic violence and sexual assault.
- The availability of crime labs and forensic units is limited, resulting in
more reliance on state agencies (which can cause significant delays in case
- Some rural-remote jurisdictions do not even have "911" emergency
In smaller communities with campuses, some positive elements were identified
by focus group participants:
- A victim may be more likely to know somebody in law enforcement, and can
quickly call for assistance.
- There may be greater informal social controls that contribute to fewer crimes
committed, as well as a tendency of community members "to look out for
- Citizen involvement and awareness can be high.
Potential solutions suggested by focus group participants included:
- Assessing the scope and level of victim services provided by the campus or
the community; identifying gaps in services; and working collaboratively to
fill such gaps.
- Developing collaborative public safety initiatives and plans for response
to crime between campus and community law enforcement, and campus and community
- Establishing transportation services (utilizing trained volunteers, as necessary)
to enhance victim access to supportive services, medical and mental health services,
and participation in justice processes.
- Expanding outreach efforts to recruit human and financial resources for victim
assistance from the community.
- Adoption of "honor codes" to guide students' behavior and values
that are directly linked to mores of the local communities.
- Sponsorship of activities that empower students to establish honor codes,
contribute to crime prevention initiatives, and establish peer mentoring and
supportive services for students who are victimized (Seymour 1998).
Federal Grant Programs that Address Rural Victimization
Rural Domestic Violence and Child Victimization Enforcement Grants at the
Office of Justice Programs improve and increase services available to rural
women and children by encouraging community involvement in developing coordinated
responses to domestic violence and child abuse. Grant recipients include:
- The Maine Rural Health Family Violence Initiative coordinates services for
battered women and abused children using health care providers as the first
line of defense. The project fosters collaboration between service providers
and law enforcement, provides on-site intervention, and is developing training
programs that will be tested in four settings, including two Native American
health clinics and the state's largest hospital.
- The Greater Rural Assistance and Intervention Network (GRAIN) comprehensively
responds to domestic violence and child victimization in seven rural counties
in northwest Iowa. The project provides direct services, training for agencies
involved in providing services to victims, develops protocols for law enforcement
and prosecutors to promote victim safety and offender accountability, and sponsors
prevention education for young people.
The STOP (Services Training Officers Prosecutors) Violence Against Women
Formula Grant Program awards funds to states and territories to restructure
and strengthen the criminal justice system's response to violence against
women. For example:
- The Farm Worker Women Leadership Project in California developed a model
for identifying farm worker women in California communities to receive training
in sexual assault and domestic violence awareness, prevention strategies, and
available resources. In turn, these women train others in their communities
about these issues.
Four percent of the amount budgeted each year for the STOP Violence Against
Women Formula Grant Program is awarded to Indian tribal governments. Examples
- The Osage Nation in Oklahoma has developed written policies and procedures
on domestic violence for law enforcement officers; the prosecutor and courts
are establishing a more specific domestic violence code; the Osage Nation Counseling
Center has hired a domestic violence/sexual assault counselor who is available
during non-business hours; and thecounseling center and the tribal court are
collaborating to set up a treatment group for offenders.
- The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina established a new
shelter, hired a criminal investigator, and provides battered women with court
advocacy to help them navigate the tribal justice system.
- The Rosebud Sioux Tribe in South Dakota launched a campaign to raise awareness
about domestic violence. The tribe also made policy and legal changes to stiffen
sanctions against offenders and improve services for battered women.
(The previous section has been excerpted from a report prepared by the Rural
Task Force, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington
OTHER PROGRAMS TO ADDRESS RURAL VICTIMIZATION IN INDIAN COUNTRY
Chugachmiut CJA program. Disclosure of extensive child sexual
abuse in reservation boarding schools and several multiple-victim child molestation
cases on remote Indian reservations resulted in an amendment authorizing the
Office for Victims of Crime to use Children's Justice Act (CJA) funds in Indian
Country to improve the handling of child sexual abuse cases. The Chugachmiut
CJA program is located in the Chugach region of Alaska, a region comprising
seven Native Alaskan villages along the southern coastal area between Icy
Bay and Prince William Sound to the southwest tip of the Kenai Peninsula.
This program received a grant to implement systems for recognizing child abuse,
intervening in child abuse cases, and protecting children in the villages.
Many villages are accessible only by air or sea travel, and this isolation
causes gaps in service delivery. The CJA grant allowed project staff to assist
each village in establishing Child Protection Teams, offer training to village
residents, increase community awareness and education, create a directory
of service referrals, and develop a data collection and tracking system for
reporting, referring, and responding to child sexual abuse. Chugachmiut is
focusing on establishing written protocols and procedures to formalize a Child
Protection Team established in each community (OVC 1997).
Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservations
Court Appointed Special Advocates Program (Montana). Through an interagency
agreement with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,
the Office for Victims of Crime has funded the Tribal Court Appointed Special
Advocates (CASA) Program in Indian Country. The Confederated Salish and Kootenai
Tribes of the Flathead Reservation CASA Program is a model program, and has
established groundbreaking precedence in utilizing volunteers to assist child
victims in remote areas of Indian Country. The Program made a determination
that having a volunteer program would improve and enhance the quality of the
representation and assure that the tribal court could make decisions in the
best interests of the child. The Tribal CASA Program has been successfully
recruiting, training, and supervising volunteers. The program has been providing
community education concerning the program and exploring possible financial
resources to assist the program (such as the use of tribal court filing fees
and fines to pay for CASA volunteer expenses).
The program has also successfully worked with the Salish and Kootenai Community
College to recruit and train students as CASA volunteers and to provide
college credit for these students. The program has sought to promote cultural
sensitivity by recruiting traditional cultural leaders as volunteers, utilizing
these traditional leaders as trainers in the volunteer training. The program
has also developed draft tribal code CASA provisions. The National CASA
Association has unofficially designated the Confederated Salish and Kootenai
Tribes of the Flathead Reservation CASA Program as the Tribal Court CASA
Mentor site (National CASA 1999).
National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry
The National Grange is the oldest nationwide agricultural and rural public
interest organization in the United States, with over 300,000 Grange members
affiliated with 3,600 local, county, and state Grange chapters. The National
Grange sponsors numerous initiatives that promote victims' rights and public
safety, including the following:
POLICY POSITION RELEVANT TO PROTECTION FOR VICTIMS AND JURORS
- We support increased protection for those who serve on juries. We oppose
any publication or disclosure of jury deliberations, as they are confidential
and should remain so.
- The National Grange supports legislation to assure that victims and witnesses
of violent crimes (including but not limited to murder, attempted murder,
sexual assault, and assault) must be notified in writing at least 60 days
before any and all hearings in which the person who has been convicted of
that crime seeks release or a change in release status from either a prison
or mental institution.
- The National Grange encourages print and broadcast news media to be sensitive
to the issues involving their coverage of crime and victimization, in order
to better respect the privacy of crime victims.
POLICY PRIORITY TO ENHANCE PUBLIC SAFETY IN RURAL AREAS
Grange members, like all rural citizens, cherish being secure in their homes,
free of crime and fear. However, crime is increasingly making its way into
rural communities. Urban street gangs extend their influence into rural towns
to recruit new members. Drug dealers use rural locations to manufacture toxic
drugs to poison youth. Rural communities are inadequately prepared to recognize,
prevent and address occurrences of domestic violence. The basic rights of
violent crime victims in rural areas go unprotected. Rural law enforcement
agencies, often under-funded and under-trained to deal with these threats
and challenges, strain to provide basic public safety.
MEMBER AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS
For more information about the National Grange, its programs, polices, and
membership services for rural Americans, please contact: The National Grange,
1616 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20006-4999 (888-4-GRANGE) (fax: 202-347-1091)
www.nationalgrange.org email@example.com (e-mail).
- Family Resources Center, Wytheville, Virginia. Family Resources Center, a
private nonprofit agency, provides victim assistance services to victims of
child physical and sexualabuse, sexual assault, stalking, and domestic violence
in seven counties in rural southwest Virginia. The program is supported by both
Victims of Crime Act, and more recently, Violence Against Women Act funding.
In many areas of this part of the state, Family Resources provides the only
services available for crime victims. For example, in Wythe County, where the
Center is located, there are no victim-witness assistance services based in
the criminal justice system.
Transportation is the number one barrier to victims accessing services
in this part of Virginia. The Center provides transportation for victims
to criminal justice related appointments and to medical, psychological,
or other critically needed treatment providers. However, due to the mountainous
terrain throughout the seven counties served by the Center, such services
often pose risks to both advocates and victims, especially during winter
In addition to providing transportation to help reduce the barriers to assistance,
the Family Resources Center operates a toll-free 800 number because over
four-fifths of their service area is long distance.
The Center also operates a satellite office to provide victim services to
victims living in isolated jurisdictions without transportation. Services
are providing in outlying counties once a week. With VAWA funding, the Center
plans to open a second office in another isolated location with coverage
three to four days per week.
- Alternatives Incorporated of Madison County, Anderson, Indiana. Alternatives
Incorporated of Madison County, Indiana, is a nonprofit organization that serves
victims of adult and child sexual assault, domestic violence, elder abuse and
neglect, and child abuse and neglect. While its primary service jurisdiction
is Madison County, it also provides outreach and support to victims in three
other counties-Hamilton, Hancock, and Henry counties. A total population of
130,000 is located in rural communities throughout the four-county area.
The program receives support from local, state, and federal grants, including
Victims of Crime Act and Violence Against Women Act funding, and in-kind
donations. The program employs four full-time staff and ten part-time volunteers.
Alternatives Incorporated has created a special domestic violence prevention
program entitled HAVEN-Healthcare and Advocates Violence Elimination Network.
The unique program is a collaboration between Alternatives Incorporated
and rural hospitals. It is designed to identify domestic violence victims
within communities and to produce an innovative response to domestic violence
through the health care network.
- Sheridan County, Wyoming Crime Victim Assistance Program. The Sheridan County
Prosecuting Attorney and the Women's Center have combined resources to develop
a comprehensive crime victim assistance program in Sheridan County, Wyoming.
The town of Sheridan serves as the county center and has a population of 14,000.
Including several other satellite towns, the total population of Sheridan County
is almost 30,000--a geographic area that encompasses hundreds of miles, including
The Sheridan County Crime Victim Assistance Program has been in existence
in this rural setting for just over two years. Prior to the establishment
of the Crime Victim AssistanceProgram, no services were available for crime
victims in Sheridan County, other than those offered by the Women's Center
for family violence, sexual assault, and child abuse victims. For the most
part, these crisis services tapered off when the victim went to court. The
Women's Center and the County Attorney felt that victims would be more consistently
and thoroughly served with the unique combination of services provided by
the Center's experienced staff, and the information and space made accessible
by the County Attorney's office.
The program has increased the range of victim services in the county. Advocacy
services are now available to all victims of violent crime. Victims of domestic
violence, sexual assault, or child sexual abuse have the added benefit of
advocates trained to provide criminal justice system information, court
escort, and other services. Victims of arson, burglary, homicide, or elder
fraud have a place to turn to for further assistance and support. The program
has also increased victim satisfaction with the prosecutor's office and
has assisted the prosecutor's office in implementing programs to further
protect victims' rights. Recent collaborative efforts have resulted in the
development of comprehensive protocol for the investigation and prosecution
of domestic violence and sexual assault cases (Wallace and Edmunds 1998).
- Carroll County Victims Assistance Program, Carrollton, Ohio. The Victim Assistance
Program in the Carroll County Prosecuting Attorney's Office in Carrollton County,
Ohio, serves victims of domestic violence, child abuse, sexual assault, felonious
assaults, and other serious crimes. With over 50 percent of their caseload being
domestic violence cases, the victim assistance program established special services
for families experiencing domestic violence.
With support from a private foundation, the prosecuting attorney's office
started classes for children who live in domestic violence homes. The program
is called KIDDS-Kids in Domestic Dispute Situations. The classes are held
once a week for two age groups. They last one hour each and to date the
program has served over thirty children. As the program director noted:
"This may not seem like a lot, but we feel we have accomplished something
with these kids who have lived in domestic situations." In addition,
as an alternative to jail, the prosecuting attorney's office also started
classes for men who abuse. They meet once a week in a group with a trained
- Penn State Center for Research on Crime and Justice. The intricate causes
of crime and its impact on rural and suburban communities are examined and analyzed
at the Penn State Center for Research on Crime and Justice. Communities and
crime are being examined in the context, for example, of different crime rates
by victims' age, gender, and race as well as by neighborhood, including related
factors such as the amount of housing, how often residents move in and out of
town, the structure of area families, and economic issues. A particular focus
is on how decisions are made in the criminal justice system by victims, police,
prosecutors, judges, juries, and other groups, and how the results may affect
a community. Additional information about this project is available electronically
- Rural Crime Watch. In California, the Rural Crime Watch program is a service
of the California Farm Bureau Federation (CFBF) to assist law enforcement agencies
in sharinginformation about rural crimes. Extensive information is available
in both paper and electronic formats on equipment thefts, commodity thefts,
Rural Crime Task Force meetings, information and tips about thefts and scams,
and information about rural crime prevention programs. The CFBF Web site http://www.cfbf.com
also contains links that enhance intercounty information exchange as well as
information about crime prevention and victim assistance.
- Student interns cover bases in four-county rural Tennessee. Through a collaboration
with several colleges in the rural, four-county Tenth Judicial District of Tennessee,
the Victim/Witness Assistance Program at the District Attorney General's office
maintains four offices by relying on student interns to deliver services to
victims and witnesses. The student intern program offers academic credit to
criminal justice and social service majors, providing them with exposure to
the system from the perspective of prosecutors, victims, and witnesses. Applicants
to the Intern Program participate in a training program at the District Attorney
General's office to learn about the role that victims and witnesses play in
the criminal justice system, and they attend General Sessions Court to learn
about court procedures. Interns are assigned to attend preliminary hearings
to provide victims and witnesses with up-to-date information on the status of
their cases, and to help them obtain answers from the prosecutors to any questions
that they may have. Victim/Witness Administrator, Office of the District Attorney
General, 10th Judicial District, 130 Washington Avenue NE, Suite 1, P.O. Box
647, Athens, TN 37371-0647 (423-744-2830).
- Support from the clergy. The Victim Witness Division of the Office of the
Prosecuting Attorney, based in Maui, HI, provides more immediate response to
victims on rural Maui and the lesser populated islands of Molokai and Lanai
by involving clergy-based volunteers trained in victimization. The clergy has
been a natural support group in the rural Hawaiian areas, and their participation
has improved cooperation and communication between criminal justice professionals,
victim services, and rural victims. Victim Witness Assistance, Department of
the Prosecuting Attorney, 200 South High Street, Wailuku, HI 96793 (808-243-7695).
- Multidisciplinary teams and full service response. Malheur County, OR is
a geographically large, culturally diverse, rural county with a small population
(30,000) and a high rate of domestic violence--102 reported cases in the first
six months of 1999. The Domestic Violence Unit was formed to develop immediate
response capability, a consistent protocol for contacting victims and keeping
them involved and informed while their cases are processed, and a collaborative
relationship with community services that provides victims with ongoing support.
Team members (a deputy district attorney, a crisis coordinator, and a police
officer) are bi-lingual, trained domestic violence specialists.
The district attorney is on call to law enforcement 24 hours a day. When
a domestic violence incident occurs, he or she stays in close contact with
the police officer dispatched to the scene of the crime in order to assess
the situation and insure that information on the case is taken correctly.
Arrests are made under a mandatory arrest law. Following the incident, the
Unit Crisis Coordinator meets with the victim to enhance the safety of the
family, to interview potential witnesses, and to determine the necessity
of a restraining or anti-stalking order. Office of the District Attorney,
Courthouse #6, 251 B Street West, Vale, Oregon 97918 (541-473-5127).
Rural Victims Self-Examination
1. What basic issues present barriers to rural crime victims in accessing
crime victim services and assistance?
2. Name three specific victim populations and the special problems they face
when they are members of a rural-remote community.
3. What problems are encountered by students who are victims of crime on
campus at a rural-remote institution of higher learning?
4. List three community/agency solutions that may be implemented to assist
rural-remote crime victims in accessing quality victim assistance.
|Chapter 22 Special Topics